Friday, 20 April 2018

Meditation: Different Approaches, Different Benefits


Profound breathing is an extraordinary pressure reliever, and the procedure called care reflection is a useful method to utilize breathing to get more in contact with your internal identity. Individuals who ponder say they feel more positive, and have more vitality and better fixation. There's in excess of one approach to tap contemplation's advantages - through varieties in procedure. An investigation distributed in the diary Mindfulness took a gander at what can be picked up from a couple of well known methodologies. 

Body filter. With body examine contemplation, you center around each body section, each one in turn, from your go to your feet. At the point when combined with centered breathing, contemplate members strongly lessened their number of negative considerations, and musings about the future and the past. Body output can enable you to feel more fixated and concentrated on the "now." Adoring consideration. This sort of contemplation encourages you develop positive affections for a friend or family member and in addition for yourself, your broadened group of friends, and past. This sort of reflection prompted the best lift in members' sentiments of warm, positive musings about others. It can be a decent approach in case you're confronting relational clashes. 

Watching thought. This kind of reflection shows you to perceive and characterize musings - as negative or positive, for example - without getting to be caught up in them. This training helped members turn out to be more mindful of the two musings and judgmental mentalities they held toward others. It additionally can stop rumination - the propensity for drearily going over upsetting circumstances in your psyche. While contemplation when all is said in done can enable you to feel more casual, distinctive writes offer extra advantages. Investigation to discover those that convey you nearer to your own change objectives.

Thursday, 19 April 2018

Infantile Hypophosphatasia in Saudi Child. Case Report

AHypophosphatasia is characterized by low serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and has a similar radiographic appearance with rickets. There are considerable differences in the severity of the disease. The clinical course of this condition often improves; although early death can occur in the infantile form of the disorder. We experienced one case with severe infantile type of hypophosphatasia.

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) characterized by defective mineralization of bone and dental tissue. The features of this disease include diminished alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and increased urinary excretion of Phosphorylethanolamine. This inborn error of metabolism is a rare inherited form of rickets or osteomalacia due to reduced activity of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) caused by loss-of-function mutation within the TNSALP gene marked by low serum ALP. HPP is classified into different clinical types with a remarkable range of severity. Perinatal HPP is always fatal from profound skeletal hypomineralization. Infantile HPP presents before six months of age with rickets, failure-to-thrive and hypercalcemia occasionally, craniosynostosis or vitamin B6-responsive seizures as well as respiratory failure associated with progressive chest deformity. Childhood HPP features rickets and loss of deciduous teeth, hypoplasia and myopathy while adult HPP causes osteomalacia.

Autosomal recessive inheritance accounts for severe HPP while autosomal dominant or recessive transmission underlies the mild form. TNSALP replacement therapy is an effective treatment of HPP in infants. The mortality rate of infantile type is 50–100% and patients die due to respiratory infection. We present a case of a 14-month-old girl with the clinical manifestations of rickets, failure to thrive and developmental delay. Hypercalcaemia and low alkaline phosphatase level constitute the main diagnostic laboratory abnormalities if infantile HPP. We aim to share experience.

Wednesday, 18 April 2018

Adolescent Macro-Nutrition and Micro-Nutrition


Adolescence is a crucial position in the life of human beings. Nutritional demand reaches peak in this period. After go through and critically review we found malnutrition rate among adolescent is high. They have both macronutrient and micronutrient deficiency. Behavioral risk factors and peer group pressure have strong influence on food choices. Obvious difference was observed in urban, periurban and rural area. More large scale or depth study can be conducted to get recent picture.

Adolescence is a significant period of life. Actually it is a transitional period from puberty to adulthood. Most of the physical growth occurs in this time period. Healthy and nutritious eating during adolescence is particularly important as body changes during this time affect an individual’s nutritional and dietary needs. Adolescents are becoming more independent and making many food decisions on their own. In urban area they are prone to take fast, junk and energy dense food. Many adolescents experience a growth spurt and an increase in appetite and need healthy foods to meet their growth needs. Adolescents tend to eat more meals away from home than younger children. Peer group pressure is an important determinant of adolescent nutrition. Meal convenience is important to many adolescents and they may be eating too much of the wrong types of food, like soft drinks, fast-food, or processed foods. Also, a common concern of many adolescents is dieting. Girls may feel pressure from peers to be thin and to limit what they eat. This review is an attempt to explore more on adolescent nutrition.

The United Nations’ Sub Committee on Nutrition meeting held in Oslo in 1998 concluded that more data on health and nutrition of school age children are needed to assess their scale of problem. It also believed that the scale of nutritional problems may have been previously under estimated. Traditionally, the main health indicator used by health planners has been mortality rates. Adolescents have the lowest mortality among the different age groups and have therefore received low priority. However, recent studies have shown that the prevalence of malnutrition and anemia is high in these age groups. The recent trend of recognizing adolescent girls as a separate as well as the crucial target group is heartening. Yet, sustained efforts are needed at the national level not only to develop comprehensive and innovative programmes for this segment of our population but also ensure their effective implementation. It is expected that such a holistic approach for the development of adolescent girls will gradually improve their nutritional status as well as enhance their nutrition/health knowledge and social awareness. Equipped with skills for income generation, these girls will be empowered to make decisions regarding themselves and their family, especially the children. 

Tuesday, 17 April 2018

Patients with a Diagnosis of Malignant Cancer First After Tia/Stroke Usually Appear to Have Lower Annual Risk of Stroke/Myocardial Infarction Events Compared to Patients Without Cancer Diagnosis. A 25-Year Follow-Up Hospital-Based Observational Study

Cancer can increase the risk of stroke due to multiple causes especially during the first 3-6 months after diagnosis for lung, pancreatic, colorectal, breast, prostate cancers or with diagnosed cancer in the nervous system or leukaemia. The occurrence of metastasis is associated with an increased risk of haemorrhagic/ischaemic stroke. In patients with cancer in the nervous system, colon, rectum, urinary bladder or leukaemia, an increased risk of ischemic stroke has been found even during long-term observation as for women with breast cancer. Radiotherapy has been reported to be a risk factor for stroke as well as for myocardial infarction (MI), whereas treatment with tamoxifen has been reported to increase the risk of stroke but to decrease the risk of MI. 

Charturwedi et al. declared that the identified ischaemic strokes among cancer patients were low and that the rate of recurrent ischaemic events, which occurred in 6% of cancer patients during a mean observation of 9 months, was not higher than the results from different stroke studies reported. However, in a Chinese stroke study past cancer was shown by Cox regression analysis to be a predictor of recurrent stroke as well as cardiovascular mortality during longterm follow-up. The main purposes of this retrospective study were to determine whether patients admitted due to transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or different subgroups of stroke with a diagnosis of malignant cancer (International Classification of Disease (ICD), ICD-10: C00-C97) either before and/or after admission had different risks of recurrent stroke and MI annually compared to patients without cancer.

This study consists of a cohort of 549 patients who had been hospitalized in the Stroke Unit or on the general ward of the Department of Neurology, University Hospital Link√∂ping in 1986 and retro/prospectively followed up until Feb. 2011. The definitions of risk factors have been reported previously. Cause of death was based on the underlying cause, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the disorder that began the chain of events leading to death. Data about types of cancer were obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry established in 1958 and with data to 2010, with permission from the National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden as well from journals and autopsy reports. Patients with basal cell carcinoma were not included in this report because basal cell carcinoma was not included in the Swedish Cancer Registry until 2004. Stage of cancer or cancer treatment was not reported. 

Monday, 16 April 2018

Negative Fateful Life Events Linked to Advanced Brain Aging


Negative decisive life occasions (FLEs) in midlife are related with cutting edge anticipated cerebrum maturing, as indicated by an investigation distributed in the July issue of Neurobiology of Aging. 

Sean N. Hatton, Ph.D., from the University of California in San Diego, and partners inspected whether negative midlife FLEs are related with cutting edge mind maturing subsequent to controlling for physical, mental, and way of life factors in a companion of 359 men (mean age, 62 years) taking an interest in the Vietnam Era twin investigation of maturing. Members were surveyed for negative FLEs, wellbeing and prosperity, general subjective capacity, financial status, sorrow, and ethnicity at two diverse time focuses. Members experienced attractive reverberation imaging, and T1-weighted pictures were prepared. To foresee mind age, neuroanatomical estimations were gone into the Brain-Age Regression Analysis and Computation Utility programming. 

The analysts watched a connection for having more midlife FLEs, particularly identifying with relational connections, with cutting edge anticipated cerebrum maturing. After they controlled for the noteworthy covariates of liquor utilization, cardiovascular hazard, grown-up financial status, and ethnicity, the connection held on. 

"People who had more elevated amounts of significant life occasions hinted at cutting edge anticipated cerebrum maturing," the writers compose. "It stays to be resolved whether the impact of midlife FLEs and different factors on cerebrum age may change with expanding ordered age."

Friday, 13 April 2018

Diabetes Mellitus: Beyond the Triopathy

When diabetes mellitus comes into question, the most common thing that strikes the mind of a physician is triopathy, cardiovascular status and secondary infections due to the immunosupressive state. Attention also needs to be paid to the examination of the oral cavity, auditory, complete ophthalmic, skin, pulmonary, gastrointestinal and muscular system in such patients, so that the work up of a diabetic patient becomes complete in all its aspects. A few noteworthy manifestations are discussed below.

An elevated blood glucose level is associated with dysfunction, damage and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels. The five classic complications associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) include retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, cardiovascular complications (coronary arterial disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease) and delayed wound healing. Periodontal disease has recently been recognized as the “sixth complication” of DM. Oral involvement is in the form of periodontal disease, dental caries, fissured tongue, irritation fibroma, traumatic ulcers, lichen planus, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Taste impairment has also been associated with the development of obesity and it has been reported during the course of diabetes.

Besides the diabetic retinopathy changes known to occur in DM, other significant ocular findings may be in the form of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, diabetic papillopathy, cranial nerve palsy, ocular ischemic syndrome, retinal vein occlusion, retinal artery occlusion, glaucoma, dry eye and hence a complete ocular workup is mandatory. Diabetic retinopathy changes in pregnancy need a special mention. In patients who had nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, studies demonstrated that as many as 50% of them may show an increase in their nonproliferative retinopathy during pregnancy. Approximately 5-20 % of these patients develop proliferative changes.

Thursday, 12 April 2018

Optimism/Pessimism and Its Relationship with Locus of Control Among Children and Adolescents

The aim of this study was to examine the gender and developmental period differences in optimism-pessimism and locus of control. Additionally, it aimed to assess the correlation between optimism-pessimism and subscale of locus of control (internal, external, and unknown). The sample consisted (340) participants of school students (165 boys and 125 girls) enrolled randomly, from primary and preparatory schools located in Aleppo city. The participants aged between 10 to 15 years (M= 12.4 male, 12.8 female).The participants completed two measures: 1-Optimism-Pessimism Scale (OPS) 2- Connell’s locus of Control Scale for Children (CLCS-C). Findings of the study revealed that, the external locus of control were higher among girls than among boys, while no significant differences had been found in internal and unknown locus of control. Aon the other hand, finding showed that, there was significant gender differences for optimism. Boys were found to be more optimistic than girls were. Regarding the correlation between optimism-pessimism and subscale of locus of control, there was significant and positive correlation between optimism and Internal control. Additionally between pessimism and external control on one hand, and between pessimism and unknown locus control on the other hand. Furthermore, it has been found a negative and significant correlation between pessimism and internal control and between optimism and unknown locus of control.

The personality of a child depends upon several factors including family composition, home environment, socialization, childhood experiences, education, socio-economic status, parents’ occupations etc. Family influences on personality development are highly significant as parent child relationship, parenting, emotional climate of home; size and type of family determine the process of development during childhood years. (Kokkinos, & Logginidou, 2005). The relation a child has with parents and other family members is one of the most important factors in personality development as family provides physical safety, economic support, social and emotional security (Rigby, 1993, Massachusetts, 2000, Batabyal, A. & Nijkamp, P 2017).

Optimism, pessimism and locus of control have been shown to be pervasive and important attributes of human thought and expression. Optimism has been shown to mitigate the effects of stressors on psychological functioning. Dispositional optimists (who hold generalized positive outcome expectancies) have shown less mood disturbance in response to a number of different stressors, including adaptation to school and college, (Yates, (2000). Optimism has also been associated with better physical and mental health. (Lennings, 2000). Recent years have witnessed substantial progress in understanding the contribution of psychosocial factors to physical and psychological health. One such factor, optimism, or the expectation of positive outcomes, has been tied to better physical health and more successful coping with health challenges (Ismail, A. (2001). However, the routes by which optimism might be associated with better health have not received systematic investigation.